# 主流的中间件介绍

## ActiveMQ

• Apche出版的，最流行的，能力强劲的开源消息总线，并且它可以完全的支持JMS规范的消息中间件

• 其丰富的API，多种集群构建模式让它成为业界的老牌消息队列中间件，在小型企业中使用比较的广泛

• MQ衡量的指标：服务性能、数据存储、集群架构

• 不适用当今的高并发的数据时代，在大规模的数据下，会严重的阻塞并且延迟，消息堆积

• 小型中间件

集群的架构模式

## KafKa

Kafka常规集群模式

## RocketMQ

RocketMQ是阿里开源项目的消息中间件，目前已经孵化为Apache顶级项目，它是纯JAVA开发，具有高吞吐量、高可用、适合大规模分布式系统应用的特点。RocketMQ思路起源于Kafka，它对于消息的可靠传输及其事务性做了优化，目前在阿里集团中被广泛的应用于交易、充值、流计算、消息推送，日志流式处理、binlog分发等。

• 适合运用在超大规模的分布式应用系统中

• 借鉴了Kafka的设计模式

• 早起使用Zookeeper后期自己开发了一套nameserver

• 顺序消费，实时消息，承载上亿的消息堆积

• 唯一缺点商业版是收费的

集群的架构模式

## RabbitMQ

RabbitMQ是使用Erlang语言开发的开源消息队列系统

### 为甚RabbitMQ高性能

Erlang语言最初使用在交换机领域的架构模式，这样使得RabbitMQ在Broker之间进行数据交互的性能很优秀。开发作者用Erlang制作了一个网络交换机的程序发现Erlang有很好的性能

• Erlang有着和原生的Socket一样的延迟

• 消息入到MQ中的延迟和响应吞吐量

### AMQP入门

• AMQP -> Advanced Message Queuing Protocl (高级小心队列协议)

• Server -> 又称为Broker，接受客户端的连接，实现AMQP实体的服务

• Connection -> 连接，application和broke建立网络连接

• Channel -> 网络信道，几乎是所有的操作都在Channel中进行，Channel是进行消息读写的通道，客户端可以建立多个Channel，每一个Channel代表一个会话的任务（常规的增删改查都通过它）

• Message -> 消息，服务器和应用之间传输数据，由于Properties和Body组成。Properties可以对消息进行修饰，如消息的优先级、延迟或其他高级的特性。Body是消息体内容

• Virtual host -> 虚拟地址，用于进行逻辑隔离，最上层的消息路由，由于一个Virtual Host里面可以有若干个Exchange和Queue，但是同一个Virtual Host中不能有同名的Exchange和Queue

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